• WHAT WE DID TODAY:

    Tuesday 5-21-19 Today students took a survey:

    http:// www.advance-ed.org/survey/public/7051291

    Grades for 4th 9 weeks will be finalized and posted this afternoon.

    Monday 5-20-19 Today students finished make up work and we had field day in the afternoon. 

    Friday 5-17-19 Today we worked on make up work and test re-takes.  I hope to have all grades finalized by Monday afternoon. IF YOU HAVE NOT TURNED SOMETHING IN, IT IS DUE FIRST THING MONDAY MORNING!!!!!

    Thursday 5-16-19 Today we worked on make up work and test re-takes.

    Wednesday 5-15-19 Today the bell ringer is to silently study before the exam.  Students then took the 4th 9 week exam.  After the exam, students were given a print out of all their current civics grades with work to re-do and turn in highlighted.  All grades have been entered with the exception of 3 assignments: ch 11 vocab quiz, ch 12 vocab quiz, and the 9 week exam.  I have asked students to have all make-up work turned in and completed by Friday 5-17-19.  Since we have testing Thursday and Friday morning, and I will not see 2nd, 3rd, or 4th periods, they can come to me in 5th 6th, or 7th periods on Thursday 5-16-19 or Friday5-17-19 if they need to, I can write them a pass.

    Tuesday 5-14-19 Today the bell ringer was to finsh the study guide and study.  We then allowed students to turn in books if they wanted to.  We checked the study guides for completeion.  We then went over the study guide.  Homework is to study for the exam that is tomorrow, and bring textbooks to turn in.

    4th 9 weeks exam study guie answer key spring 2019

    spring 2019 9 weeks exam study guide

    4th 9 weeks review powerpoint

    review powerpoint 4th 9 weeks ANSWER Key

    Monday 5-13-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then had students take the bell ringer quiz. After the quiz. Students were asked to finish their Civics 9 weeek exam study guide.  They were provided answers 1-45 to get down.  Homework is to finsh the study guide and start to study for Wednesday's exam.

     4th 9 weeks exam study guie answer key spring 2019

    spring 2019 9 weeks exam study guide

    Friday 5-10-19 Today students came in and were given a chance to study ch 12 review before the chapter 12 open book quiz.  After the quiz, students were given a chance to re-take test from this 9 weeks.  Students then were supposed to work on their 9 week exam review.  I gave them the answers to the first half of it (written on the board).  Homework is to make sure they have all bellringers handwritten and answered for the quiz on Monday.

     4th 9 weeks civics bell ringers spring 2019

    spring 2019 9 weeks exam study guide

    first half of answers to exam review spring 2019

    Thursday 5-9-19 Today the bell ringer was to study before the chapter 12 vocabulary quiz.  Students then made sure they turned in chapter 12 essay question. Students then took the chapter 12 vocab quiz.  After the quiz we went over the 12.3 questions and ch 12 review questions.  Students then started to work on the 9 week exam review. 

    Tomorrow (Friday) we will take the open book ch 12 quiz.  Students will then have an opportunity to re-take tests that they have failed this 9 weeks.  If they are not re-testing, they are making sure they have all bell ringers for the quiz on Moonday and working on the 9 weeks exam review questions.

    spring 2019 9 weeks exam study guide

    Wednesday 5-8-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following 2 questions after reading page 301.

    20. How did studeents in Newburg respond to the problem of teenage homelessness in their community?  

    21. What methods did the students use to gain support for thier idea?

    We then had students complete the 12.3 handout and complete the chapter 12 essay question.  Students then worked on the chapter 12 review questions for the open book quiz on Friday. Homework is to study ch 12 vocab for Thursday's quiz.

    Tuesday 5-7-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following 3 questions from page 304.  

    17. Who produced the film? How might that affect the point of view of the documentary?

    18. What possible points of view might a documentary about Mount Rushmore present?

    19. What sources might you use to verify the information presented in the documentary?

    We then finshed the 12.2 questions and went over them.  We then read 12.3 and worked ont he 12.3 handout quesitons.  Students were given the ch 12 essay question to start on.  Students were given the chapter 12 essay question to start on.  Since Tomorrow, we may not see all classes, we also passed out the chapter 12 review questions.  On Thursday we will have the chapter 12 vocab quiz.  We have moved the Chapter 10 open book quiz to Friday to allow students more time to finish assignments from chatper 10 as we may lose class time tomorrow due to NJHS ceremony.

     12.3 handout

    ch 12 review questions spring 2019

    ch 12 essay queston

    Monday 5-6-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab), then copy and answer the following questiond from the Rising Cost of Government Box on page 295 and the Link to Today box on page 296:

    15. In which decade did per capita spending increase most rapidly?

    16. WHy do you thin taxes are often an important issue in political campaigns?

    Students were then given a chance to study before the chapter 11 vocab quiz.  Students then took the chapter 11 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students finished the chapter 12 vocab and 12.1 questions from last week.  We then read 12.2 anc completed the 12.2 questions.

     12.2 questions

    Friday 5-3-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following questions from page 287. 

    13. Why do the Dongola students believe that establishing a June Adams holiday is worth their efforts?

    14. If you were to propose a new statewide holiday, who soule you choose to honor? Why?

    We then had studnets finsh chapter 12 vocab from yesterday.  Students read 12.1 and answered 12.1 questions.  Homework is to study ch. 11 vocab for quiz on Monday, as we moved it from today to Monday as we had several students absent doing physicals.

     12.1 questions

    Thursday 5-2-19 Today students were given a chance to study before their test.  Students then took the ch 10 & 11 test.  After the test, students finished their ch 11 essay question. They then studied ch 11 vocab for quiz tomorrow.  They then started ch 12 vocab.  Homework is to study for ch 11 vocab quiz tomorrow.

    ch 11 vocab terms and definitions

    ch 12 vocab terms

    Wednesday 5-1-19 Today the bell ringer was to read the American Civil Liberties box on page 285 and copy and answer the following questions:

     11. Why are the restrictions on candidate's money and individual contributions different?

    12. Present an argument for and against restricting political spending during campaigns.

    We then gave students a few minutes to finish their chapter 10 and 11 study guide before turning that in.  Students then completed chapter 11 vocab and worked on the chapter 11 essay question.  I then gave studnets back their graded study guides and went over all the answers.  Students were given time to write down all the correct answers to the study guide.  Homework is to study for Tomorrow's chapter 10 & 11 test.  My classes chose to take the chapter 11 vocabualry quiz on Friday rather than add it to the test tomorrow.

     Answer Key to ch 10 & 11 Study Guide

    ch 11 essay question

    ch 10 & 11 Study Guide

    Tuesday 4-30-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following questions from page 277.  Read the page first, then copy and answer.  

    8.  Who is polled? What are some points of view the pollsters brought to the poll?  How do you know?

    9. Who sponsored or paid for the poll?  Do you think they influenced the outcome of the poll? Why or why not?

    10. List the elements of this poll that make it neutral. Explain.

    Students then had a chance to finish chapter 11 vocab.  They then worked on the chapter 10 and 11 study guide.  The answers to the even nubered questions were on the board to help students on thier study guide.  Homework is to finish the chapter 10 & 11 study guide and finsh chapter 11 vocab activity.

     Answer Key to ch 10 & 11 Study Guide- EVEN NUMBERS

    Monday 4-29-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (See calendar tab).   We then gave them a chance to finsh the 11.2 & 11.3 work before checking it.  We then had students work on the chapter 11 vocab activity (studnets need to have at least 1/2 of it done before class tomorrow).  They were also given the cahpter 10 & 11 study guide for the test on Thursday.  We will work on the study guide tomorrow.

    ch 11 vocab activity 

    ch 10 & 11 Study Guide

    Friday 4-26-19 Today the bell ringer was to finsh the 11.1 handout.  We then went over it.  We read through chapter 11 sections 2 & 3.  Students then answered questions on sections 2 & 3.

    11.2 questions

    11.3 questions

    Thursday 4-25-19 Today the bell ringer was to read the American Civil Liberties box on page 264 and then copy and answer the following 2 questions:

    6. Why did the Supreme Court create a special rule for untrue statements about public figures?

    7. How does the public-figure protection strike a balance between the interests of the press and the rights of individuals?

    We then had students take the chapter 10 quiz.  We then read through chapter 11 section 1.  Students then answered 11.1 questions.

    11.1 handout

    Wednesday 4-24-19 Today the bell ringer was to read the box on page 260 and copy and answer the following 2 questions from the box

    4. Do you think the primary election system is the best way to choose presidential candidates? Explain.

    5. What chages, if any would you make to the primary system?

    We then checked the 10.3 questions.  We watched a video clip about political parties and discussed.  We then went over the 10.4 questions.  Homework is to study for the chatper 10 quiz that will be tomorrow, students should look back over all work from ch 10 and look back through the chatper.

    Tuesaday 4-23-19 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the chapter 10 section 1 & 2 vocab quiz. Students then took the chapter 10 section 1 & 2 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students finished the 10.3 questions from yesterday.  We then read 10.4 and studnets worked on completing the 10.4 handout.  Homework is to make sure all work from chapter 10 is complete (10.3 and 10.4 included)

     10.4 handout

    Monday 4-22-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then finshed the 10.2 quesitons.  We then checked them.  We read through cahtper 10 section 3.  Studnets then took notes on 10.3 and answered the 10.3 qustions.  We reviewed chapter 10 vocab.  Homework is to study chapter 10 vocab for the quiz tomorrow.

    10.3 notes and questions

    10.3 notes powerpoint

    ch 10 section 1 & 2 vocab terms and definitions

    Friday 4-19-19 No School

    Thursday 4-18-19 Today students came in, finished their chapter 10 section 1 questioins.  We then checked them.  We read through chapter 10 section 2.  We then stared working on the 10.2 handout.  We will finish this on Monday.  3 day weekend.

    10.1 questions

    10.2 notes and questions

    Wednesday 4-17-19 Today the bell ringer was to finsh the chapter 10 vocab and to turn in the chapter 9 essay question if you did not already.  We then read chapter 10 section 1 and completed the 10.1 questions.  Homework is to finsh the chapter 10 vocab if it is incomplete. 

    ch 10 section 1 & 2 vocab terms and definitions

    ch 10 section 1& 2 vocab activity

    Tuesday 4-16-19 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the chapter 9 test. Students then took the chapter 9 test.  After the test sudents finshed and turned in the chapter 9 essay question.  They then started the chapter 10 vocab.  No homework tonight. 

    Monday 4-15-16 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda. We then had students finish the chapter 9 review questions.  Students were given the chapter 9 essay guestion to complete.  We then went over the answers to the review questions.  Homework is to complete the chapter 9 essay question and study for tomorrow's test. 

    Answer key to ch 9 review questions

    ch 9 review questions

    ch 9 essay question

    Friday 4-12-19 Today we had SCANTRON TESTING in the morning, so I did not see all classes.  We finshed up 9.4 work from yesterday and also students were able to work on the chapter 9 review questions  Homework over the weekend is to finish the chapter 9 review questions for the test on Tuesday.

    Thursday 4-11-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 9.3 outline and to check the answers to the 9.3 questions that were on the board.  We then read chapter 9 section 4.  Students answered questions from 9.4.  They then started the ch 9 review questions.  Homework over the weekend is to finsh the chapter 9 review questions for the test on Tuesday.

    9.4 questions

    ch 9 review questions

    Wednesday 4-10-19 Today we had SCANTRON TESTING in the morning, so I did not see all classes.  We finshed up 9.3 work from yesterday.

    Tuesday 4-9-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda.  Students were given a chance to finish their chpater 9 section 1 & 2 work.  We then watched a video clip on local government and discussed it.  We read through chapter 9 section 3.  Students then worked on completing an outline and quesions.

    9.3 outline and questions

    Monday 4-8-19 Today we had SCANTRON testing in the morning, so I did not see all classes, we finished the 9.1 & 9.2 work from last week.

    Friday 4-5-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following question from the page 229 primary source cartoon.

    3. why do you think the cartoonist chose to depict such an exaggerated method of stopping speeders?

    We then went over the 9.1 & 9.2 powerpoint notes and completed the 9.1 & 9.2 handout.  Students then copied and answered some questions on their own paper.  P. 230 # 1b, 2b, 2c, 3b  p. 233 #1b, 2b, 3b

    9.1 & 9.2 handout

    Thursday 4-4-19 Today students were given a chance to study before their chapter 8 test.  Students then took the chapter 8 test.  After the test students completed and turned in chapter 8 essay question if they had not turned it in already.  They then stared reading chapter 9 section 1.

    Wednesday 4-3-19 Today students came in and finished all incomplete work from chapter 8.  We went over the 8.3 questions, 8.4 hanodut answers, and went over the 8.3 powerpoint notes.  We also went over all the answers to the chapter 8 review questions and students were given plenty of time to get them down. Homework is to study for the chapter 8 test that is tomorrow and finish the chapter 8 essay question if it is not finished yet.

    ch 8 review questions answer key

    8.3 powerpoint notes

    Tuesday 4-2-19 Students were given a chance to complete any incomplete work from Monday.  Studens then read chapter 8 section 4 and completed the 8.4 questions and started to work on the chapter 8 review questions.  They were also given the chpater 8 essay question to start to work on.  Homwork is to finish the 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 work, and also the ch. 8 review questions (students have had 2 days in class to get this done.)

     ch 8 review questions for test

    8.4 handout

    ch 8 essay question

    Monday 4-1-19  today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenca See calendar tab. Students were then given a chance to finish the chapter 8 section 2 outline and questions from Friday 3-22-29.  We then had studnets read chapter 8 section 3. and complete the 8.3 notes and questions. 

    8.3 notes and questions

    Spring Break Monday 3-25-19 through 3-29-19 

    Friday 3-22-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the finance project and turn it in.   We then Finished the chapter 9 vocab that was given out yesterday.  We then read ch 8 section 2 and worked on the 8.2 handout and questions.

    8.2 outline and questions

    Thursday 3-21-19 Today we worked on finance projects.  We will finish finance projects and turn in tomorrow if studnets did not turn them in today.  For students who finished, we had them start chapter 9 vocab.

    ch 9 vocab activity

    Wednesday 3-20-19 Today students worked on the finance project, we will continue to work on it tomorrow.  Homework is to study chapter 8 vocab for the vocab quiz that is tomorrow. 

    ch 8 vocab terms and definitions

    Tuesday 3-19-19. Today students came in and worked on their finance projecet.  We will continue to work on the project the rest of the week in class. 

    Monday 3-18-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab). We then gave students a chance to finish the 8.1 notes and questions aand the chapter 8 vocab from last week.  We then started to work on the finance project in calass and we will work on it all week.

    2019 spring list of careers assigned to students

    Friday 3-15-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish chapter 8 vocab activity.  We then took notes on chapter 8 section 1 and discussed.  Studnets then worked on the 8.1 notes and questions handout. 

    8.1 powerpoint

    8.1 notes and questions 2019

    Thursday 3-14-19 Today students were givn a chance to study before the chapter 7 test. They then took the chapter 7 test.  Students then turned in the chapter 7 essay question if they did not already.  They then started chapter 8 vocabulary and students will finish it in class tomorrow.

    ch 8 vocab activity

    Wednesday 3-13-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 7 study guide.  We then checked the chapter 7 study guide (answers were written on the board for student s to get down).  we then gave them a little time to finsh their chapter 7 essay question.  We then went over the chapter 7 powerpoint review questions.  Students may want to re-read the chapter, or listen to the chapter read using the textbook website (book website link and password on this website under textbook page)  Homework is to study for the test that is tomorrow!

    ch 7 study guide answer key

    ch 7 study guide

    Essay Questions FROM chapter 7

    ch 7 review PowerPoint

    ch 7 review powerpoint ANSWER KEY

    Tuesday 3-12-19 Today the bell ringer was to read page 193 and copy and answer the 2 questions.

    1. How were the students inspired to promote safe exercise in their community?

    2. How did the studnets work with local officials to gain support for thier ideas?

    Students were then given a chance to work on the chapter 7 study guide.  We then watched a video clip on some important Supreme Court cases.  We then took notes on some important Supreme Court cases.  We then started the chapter 7 essay question.  Homework is to finish the chapter 7 study guide.

     Essay Questions FROM chapter 7

    Landmark Supreme Court Cases- blank chart students filled in

    ch 7 study guide

    Monday 3-11-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda.  We then gave students a chance to finish all work from chapter 7 before going over it.  We then watched a video clip on the Judicial branch and discussed it.  We then started to work on the chapter 7 study guide.

    ch 7 study guide

    7.3 guided reading

    7.2 powerpoint

    7.2 notes student copy

    7.2 guided reading

    7.1 handout

    ch 7 vocab activity

     

    ------------4th 9 weeks above, 3rd 9 weeks below-------------

    Friday 3-8-19 Teacher Work Day. No school for students

    Thursday 3-7-19 Today the bell ringer was for students to study before taking their chapter test re-takes.  We then had students take test re-takes.  Students who did not need to re-test or who finished then were supposed to read chatper 7 section 3 and complete the 7.3 guided reading.  No school Friday as it is a teacher work day.

    7.3 guided reading

     

    Wednesday 3-6-19 Today students were given a few minutes to study before their 9 weeks civics exam.  Studnets then took the exam.  After the exam, students were given a chance to study for test re-takes that will take place in class tomorrow.

    Tuesday 3-5-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the exam review questions and study.  All the answers were on the board for students to check.  We then gave students who did not finish the bell ringer quiz a chance to finish them.  We then went over the answers to the study guide.  We then stared going over the review powerpoint.  Homework is to study tonight for tomorrow's 9 week exam that is tomorrow (resources to use to study are uploaded below).

     3rd 9 weeks civics exam study guide spring 2019

    2019Answer Key for 3rd 9 weeks exam study guide

    2019 Spring civics 3rd 9 weeks exam review powerpoint

    Monday 3-4-19 Today the bell ringer was from page 188 the Analyzing information box and the reading check question.

    1. Why must the senate approve the president’s choices for the Supreme Court?
    2. Why might the Supreme Court have been given original jurisdiction in the three areas mentioned above?

    We then had studnets take the bell ringer quiz.  After the quiz, studnets worked on thier exam review questions. The first 40 answers were on the board for students to use to check their work.  Homework is to finish the 9 week exam review questions. 

     3rd 9 weeks civics exam study guide spring 2019

    2019Answer Key for 3rd 9 weeks exam study guide

    2019 Spring civics 3rd 9 weeks exam review powerpoint

    Friday 3-1-19 Today the bell ringer was to answer the following 3 questions from the blue box on page 184. 

    16. What is the news article about? What facts odes the author provide?

    17. On what sources does the authro base his or her information? What evidence do you find that the sources are either reliable or unreliable?

    18. Do you think this article is balanced? What elements are someone's opinion?

    We then gave studens a chance to make sure they had all 18 bell ringers for the quiz on Monday.  Students were then given a chance to work on their exam review for the exam on Wednesday.  Homework is to makee sure you have all the bell ringers and work on the exam review questions.

     2019 3rd 9 week bell ringers

    Thursday 2-28-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following 2 questions from the bottom of pages 186 and 187. 

    14. What are some of the steps that a case may take throught he judicial system?

    15. Why ght a court of appeals send a case back to a district court for a new trial?

    We then gave studnets a chance to study chapter 7 vocab before the quiz.  Students then took the chapter 7 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students finished the 7.2 guided reading from yesterday and started the 9 week exam review.  We went over the chapter 5 & 6 test scores from Tuesday.

     

    Wednesday 2-27-19 Today the bell ringer was to turn in the chapter 5 & 6 essay questions if they had not already and to copy and answer the following 2 questions from the American Civil Liberties box on Page 182.

    12. How could discrimination in jury selection affect a defendant in a criminal case?

    13. Why would it matter to citizens if they were not called for jury duty because of their gender, race, or ethnicity?

    We then took notes on chapter 7 section 2 by following along with a PowerPoint presentation.  Students then read chapter 7 section 2 and completed some guided reading questions.  We then reviewed chapter 7 vocab for tomorrow's quiz.  Homework is to study chapter 7 vocab for tomorrow's quiz.

    7.2 powerpoint

    7.2 notes student copy

    7.2 guided reading

    Tuesday 2-26-19 Today students were given a few minutes to study at the start of class. Students then took the chapter 5 & 6 test.  After the test, students were given a chance to finish and turn in the chapter 5 & 6 essay questions if the did not yesteday.  Students then were given a chance to finish the chapter 7 vocab and the 7.1 handout from last Thursday and Friday.  Homework is to finish the chapter 5 & 6 essay questions and turn them in at the start of class tomorrow if they have not turned them in yet.

    Monday 2-25-19 Today the bell ringer was to ocpy the weekly agenda for the next 2 weeks (see calendar link).  We then finished the chpater 7 vocab, we gave students a chance to finish the 7.1 questions handout.  We gave students a chance to work on the chapter 5 & 6 essay questions and turn them in when the finished them.  We gave students a chance to study for tomorrow's chapter 5 & 6 test.  We then went over the PowerPoint review.  Homweork is to study for tomorrow's test.

     Chapter 5 and 6 REVIEW GAME

    Answers to chapter 5 and 6 review powerpoint

    essay questions for chapter 5 and 6 test

    Spring 2019 ch 5 and 6 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Ch 5 & 6 review question

    Friday 2-22-19 Coach Ray is out sick,  We will move the chpater 5 & 6 test to Tuesday.  Students will finish the chapter 5 & 6 essay question, finish thier vocabualary from chapter 7, and then read chapter 7 section 1 and complete the 7.1 handout.

    7.1 handout

    Thursday 2-21-19 Today Coach Ray is out sick, and we will push the test back to Friday.  Sudents will study for the test today in class, they will finish their chapter 5 & 6 essay questions, and then they will start the chapter 7 vocab activity.  Homework is to sudy for the test that is tomorrow.

    ch 7 vocab activity

    Wednesday 2-20-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 5 & 6 review questions and study.  Studnets then were given the chapter 5 and 6 essay questions to work on.  We then went over the review questions.  Homework is to study for tomorrow's chapter 5 & 6 test and to work on the chapter 5 & 6 essay questions.

    essay questions for chapter 5 and 6 test

    Spring 2019 ch 5 and 6 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Ch 5 & 6 review questions

    Tuesday 2-19-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab), then to study for the chapter 6 vocab quiz that is today.  We then took the chapter 6 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, studnets worked on the chapter 5 and 6 review questions. I wrote 29 of the 50 answers on the board for them to get down.  Students were supposed to finish the review questions in class and if they did not, it turned in to homework.  Homework is to finsh the chapter 5 & 6 review questions.

    Spring 2019 ch 5 and 6 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Ch 5 & 6 review questions

    Monday 2-18-19 no school

    Friday 2-15-19 Today the bell ringer was to complete the 6.3 questions.  We read chapter 6 section 4 and students worked on the 6.4 questions.  We then went over the 6.3 & 6.4 questions.  We then passed out the chapter 5 & 6 review questions for the test on Thursday 2-21-19.  Homework is to study for the chapter 6 vocab quiz that is on Tuesday 2-19-19 (3 day weekend).

    6.4 questions

    Ch 5 & 6 review questions

    Thursday 2-14-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 6.2 questions at the bottom of the notes from yesterday.  We then went over the questions.  We discussed the president's cabinet.  We watched a video clip on President Obama's cabinet (will post the link below).  We then read through chapter 6 section 3.  Students worked on the 6.3 questions.  We went over grades with students at the end of class.

    http://viewpure.com/xxSvi6JCCfk?ref=search

    6.3 questions

    Wednesday 2-13-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 6 vocabulary activity.  We then read chapter 6 section 1.  We went over the 6.1 handout.  We then went over the 6.2 powerpoint and took notes on it.  Students then started to work on the questions that were at the boottom of their notes.

    6.2 powerpoint

    6.2 outline and questions

    Tuesday 2-12-19 Toay the bell ringer was to silently study before the chapter 5 vocab and comprehension quiz.  Students then took the quiz.  After the quiz, studnets finished 5.4 guided reaing.  We then gave studnets chapter 6 vocab to complete (homework if not done).  We then gave them 6.1 questions  and we will finish them tomorrow.

    ch 6 vocab activity

    6.1 handout

    Monday 2-11-19 Today students came in and copied the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  They then finished the 5.2 & 5.3 questions from last Thursday and Friday if they did not.  We then had them work on their comic strip.  We then checked the 5.2 & 5.3 questions.  We read chapter 5 section 4 and discussed it, and then students completed the 5.3 guided reading.  We reviewed for the chapter 5 vocab and comprehension quiz that is tomorrow.  Homework is to study.

    5.4 guided reading

    Friday 2-8-19 Today we finished the 5.2 guided reading. We then read 5.3 (p. 143-146).  Students completed the 5.3 questions. They en stared the comic strip activity.  We will finish the comic strip Monday in class if it is not complete, the 5.2 and 5.3 questions are homework if they are not finshed.  We then discussed the State of the Union Address from Tuesday night and watched a little skipping around some.  We talked about the political aspects behind it; how one party will stand while the other sits, how some times they both stand when there is a unifying statement that both parties can get behind. We discussed how it is structured, and how it it would be differnet if a Democtat was president. We discussed when President Obama gave his.  Here is link to the speecah: 

    http://viewpure.com/CjbdMU2shPE?start=0&end=0

    5.3 questions handout and comic strip activity

    Thursday 2-7-19 Today students  came in and finished the 5.1 questions handout and then we went over it.  We then read chapter 5 section 2 and worked on a guided reading.  We then went over a PowerPoint about the history classes they will be able to decide between taking next year.

     Honors vs General Social Studies Presentation 2019

     5.2 guided reading

    Wednesday 2-6-19 At the start of class, students were given a chance to turn in chapter 3 & 4 essay question.  We then had them finish the chapter 5 vocab, and it will be homework if not finished.  We then had some students take make-up tests.  We then discussed our legislative branch, and watched a video clip on gerrymandering.  We started to read through chapter 5 section 1 and work on some questions, we will finish these tomorrow.

     5.1 handout

    Tuesday 2-5-19 Today students were given a few minutes to study before taking the chapter 3 & 4 test.  We then had students take the test.  After the test, students finished the chapter 3 & 4 essay question. If students did not finish it, they can finish it and turn it in tomorrow.  We also gave students chapter 5 vocab to get started on.  

     ch 5 sections 1 & 2 vocab activity

    Monday 2-4-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab). We then gave students a chance to finsih their chapter 3 & 4 review questions (most of the answers were written on the board for them).  We then went over and checked the review questions.  Students were given the chapter 3 & 4 essay question and asked to complete it.  Homwework is to study for the 3 & 4 test that is tomorrow and also work on the essay question. 

    ch 3 & 4 review questions

    3 & 4 review questions ANSWER KEY

    ch 3 & 4 essay question

    Friday 2-1-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following questions from page 126.

    11. What are some ways you can help your community?

    We then finished all of the work from chapter 4 before going over some of it.  We then watched a video clip on the 27 amendments and then one on duties & responsiblities of citizenship and discussed them.  Studnets then started to work on the chapter 3 & 4 review questions.  Several of the answers were written on the board to help them get started.  Homework is to finish the review questions and study for the test on Tuesday.

    ch 3 & 4 review questions

    3 & 4 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Thursday 1-31-19 Today the bell ringer was to read page 123 and copy and answer the 2 questions.

    9. Why was it important for studnets to involve the police and local governments in thier project?

    10. Are there any areas in or around your school or neighborhood that are safety concerns? What can be done about them?

    We then read chapter 4 section 3 and discussed it.  Students then worked on the 4.3 guided reaing and chapter 4 vocacabulary.  Homework is to finsh all incomplete work from chapter 4.

    4.3 guided reading

    ch 4 vocab activity

    Wednesday 1-30-19 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the chapter 3 vocab quiz.  Students then took the chapter 3 vocab quiz. They finished up the 4.1 Bill of Rights notes and questions and then read through chapter 4 section 2.  We went over the 4.2 amendments chart and studnets completed questions that were on the back.  Homework is to finish all incomplete work from chapter 3 & 4. 

    4.2 amendments chart (Front)

    4.2 questions (back side)

    Tuesday 1-29-19 SCHOOL CLOSED TUE TO WEATHER

    Monday 1-28-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab). Students then completed the 3.3 questions handout, and we went over some of it.  They need to finish all of 3.3 if it is not complete.  We then watched 2 short video clips on The Bill of Rights and discussed them.  We then took notes on them.  Homework is to study for the chapter 3 vocab quiz that will be tomorrow (or the next day we are in school).

    4.1 Bill of Rights notes and questions

    Friday 1-25-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from page 92.  

    7. What is the significance of the general assembly that met in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619?

    8. Why is Thomas Jefferson's Statute of Religious Freedom important today?

    We then finished the 3.2 branches of government chart and questions from yesterday.  We read chapter 3 section 3 and completed the Guiding Reading Questions.

    We went over the chapter 1 & 2 Test scores.  Homework is to study for Tuesday's chapter 3 comprehension and vocab quiz.

    3.3 questions handout

    Thursday 1-24-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questionf form the State Seat Belt Laws box on page 90.

    5. Why do you think seat belt laws vary from state to state?

    6. Do you think a driver's abe should affect which passengers have to wear seat belts? 

    We then gave students a chance to finish the 3.1 handout from yesterday before we went over it. We had them write the 2 paragraphs from 3.1 on a sheet of notebook paper and turn it in today for a grade.  We then had students read through chapter 3 section 2 and start to complete the 3.2 brances of governmet activity and questions.

    3.2 branches of government chart and quesions

    Wednesday 1-23-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 3 vocab activity from yesterday.  We then watched a video clip on the Mayflower Compact and discussed it.  We then read chapter 3 section 1 and started to work on the 3.1 handout.  We will finish the 3.1 handout tomorrow.  Homework is to finish the chapter 3 vocabulary if it is still not finished.

    3.1 handout front side

    3.1 handout back side

    Tuesday 1-22-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar link).  Students then were given a few minutes to study before their test. They then took the chapter 1 & 2 test.  After the test, students worked on chapter 3 vocabualry.  We will finish the chapter 3 vocabulary activity tomorrow.

    ch 3 vocab activity

    ch 3 vocab terms and definitions

    Monday 1-21-19 No school

    Friday 1-18-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from page 38 while looking at the Declaration of Independence?

    3. How is the Declaration's Ideas about why governments are formed still important to our country today? The Declaration shows it is possible for people to change the government in power when it no longer reflects their will. 

    4. How does the language in the list appeal to people's emotions? Students might point to words such as absolute despotism, repeated injuries and usurpations, tyrany, refused, forbidden, and obstructed and mention that these words convey a sense of injustice that Jefferson and other members of the Continental Congress thought the colonists had suffered at the hands of Great Britain.

    We then had students work on the chapter 1 & 2 study guide.  At the end of class we went over the study guide with students and gave them an answer key. I have uploaded the answer key as well as additional material to study below.  Homework over the 3 day weekend is to study.  We will take the test on Tuesday when students return to school. 

    ch 1 & 2 study guide

    Answer Key to Ch 1 & 2 Study Guide

    Civics Chapter 1 and 2 test review game POWER POINT

    ch 1 and 2 test review game ANSWER KEY

    Thursday 1-17-19 Today the bell ringe was to study chapter 2 vocab before the quiz.  We then had students take the chapter 2 vocab and comprehension quiz.  After the quiz, students finished the 2.3 questions p. 43-48.  We then checked them.  Students were then given the chapter 1 & 2 study guide to start on.  We will finish the study guide in class tomorrow. 

    ch 1 & 2 study guide

    Wednesday 1-16-19 Today the bell ringer waas to finsih the 2.2 guided reading from yesterday.  We then went over it.  We then read through the Declaration of Independence and discussed it.  We read through chapter 2 section 3 and started work ing on the 2.3 questions.  We will finsh these in class tomorrow.  Homework is to study for the chapte 2 vocabulary quiz that is tomorrow.

    2.3 questions

    Tuesday 1-15-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answere the 2 questions from the American Religious Liberties box on page 13.

    1. What role did religion play in the arrival of early American colonists?

    2. Why do you think some colonial settlements were successful in supporting religious liberty while others were not?

    We then finished the 2.1 questions and discussed and went over it as a class. We then read chapter 2 section 2. We gave students the 2.2 guided reading questions and we will finish it in class tomorrow. 

    2.2 guided reading

    Monday 1-14-19 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda.  We then finished the 1.3 questions from Friday before we went over them.  We also gave students a chance to finish the chapter 2 vocabualry.  We watched a couple short video clips on different types of governments and discussed them.  We then started to work on the 2.1 questions.  We will finish 2.l tomorrow.  Homework is to finsh chapter 2 vocabulary if it is not complete yet.

    2.1 guided reading

    Friday 1-11-19 Today students took the chapter 1 vocabulary quiz, after the quiz, studnets checked their 1.2 answers that were on the board.  We then read thorugh chapter 1 secdtion 3 and sthey started on the 1.3 questions.  Students also started chapter 2 vocabulary. No homework this weekend, we will finish this on Monday.

    1.3 questions

    ch 2 vocab

    Thursday 1-10-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chatepr 1 section 1 questions and we then went over them.  We then watched a video clip on Naturalization and discussed it.  We then read through chapter 1 section 2 and students started to answer some questions, we will finish these tomorrow.  Homework is to study for the chapter 1 vocabulary quiz that is tomorrow.

    1.2 questions

    Wednesday 1-9-19 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 1 vocabualry.  We then went over the definitions.  We then watched a video clip about civics.  We then used the book website to read through chapter 1 section 1.  Students were given the 1.1 guided reading to work on that we will finish tomorrow.  The chapter 1 vocabualry quiz that was scheduled for Thursday will be moved back to Friday and we will also give out textbooks on Friday.

    1.1 guided reading

    ch 1 vocab terms and definitions

    Tuesday 1-8-19 Today students turned in the bottom of the syllabus if they got it signed (if not, they need to get it signed and bring it back tomorrow). We then explained how to complete chapter 1 vocabulry and we answered the first one as a class.  We then gave students the civics pre-test to see what they already know.  After they turned it in, they worked on chapter 1 vocabulary.  After all students turned in the pre-test, we went over the correct answers.  We will finish chapte 1 vocabulary tomorrow.

    civics pre-test questions

    ch 1 vocab activity

    Monday 1-7-19  Today students came in and copied their weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then went over the syllabus and expectations for this semester.  We went over a get to know you activity.  We then started chapter 1 vocabualry.  We will finish this tomorrow.

    syllabus for Civics 2018-19

    __________End of first 9 weeks___________

    Tuesday and Wednesday 12-18&19- 18 we will be doing make up work and re-taking tests

    Monday 12-17-18 Students took the geography bee today.

    Friday 12-14-18 Students took the 9 week exam today.

    Thursday 12-13-18 Today the bell ringer was to look over the study guide.  We then played a review game by going over the powerpoint and students then got to shoot basketball to earn points for their team.  Homework is to bring textbook to turn in and to study for the 9 week exam that is tomorrow.

    fall 2018 2nd 9 weeks exam study guide- ANSWER KEY

    2nd 9 weeks exam study guide fall 2018

    FALL 2018 2nd 9 weeks exam review Game powerpoint

    Wednesday 12-12-18 Today the bell riner was to study for the test re-takes or to work on the 9 week exam study guide.  Students then took their re-takes on previous tests.  We then had students work on their exam study guide.  We then gave them the answers to the study guide to check their answers.  Homework is to finish the exam study guide, study for re-takes (come take in warrior time), and finish and turn in any assignements that have not been turned in.

    fall 2018 2nd 9 weeks exam study guide- ANSWER KEY

    2nd 9 weeks exam study guide fall 2018

    FALL 2018 2nd 9 weeks exam review Game powerpoint

    Tuesday 12-11-18 Today the bell ringer was to work on the 9 week exam study guide.  We then gave all students a print out of their current civics grades and highlighted the work they need to complete and turn in.  We will be allowing students to re-take previous tests in class tomorrow, the previous study guides are still posted below under the post from the day they were assigned.  Homework is to study for test re-takes and work on the exam study guide.  All grades have been updated with evverything except the bell ringer quiz that students took yesterday.

    2nd 9 weeks exam study guide fall 2018

    Monday 12-10-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar) and to also copy and answer the 2 questions on the board from page 301.

    17. Why do you think that local governments spend the largest portion of their revenue on education?

    18. What are the largest forms of revenue for the federal, state, and local governments?

    We then had students take the bell ringer quiz.  They were allowed to use their textbook, or bell ringers to answer the questions.  After the quiz, they were supposed to work on the 9 weeks exam study guide for the exam that is on Friday.  We will allow students to re-take chapter tests on Wednesday this week and then the exam is on Friday.

    2nd 9 weeks exam study guide fall 2018

    Friday 12-7-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from the analyzing skills boxes on page 295 and 296.

    15. from page 295 In which decade did per capita spending increase the most rapidly? 1970s

    16. frompag 296 Why do you think taxes are often important issue in political campaigns?

    we then checked the 12.1 answers.  We then watched and discussed a video clip on taxes and discussed.  Homework isto make sure you have all bell ringers for the quiz on Monday.

     12.2 handout

    All 2nd 9 weeks bell ringers for quiz on Monday 12-10-18

    Wednesday 12-5-18 & Thursday 12-6-18 I saw all students either Wednesday or Thursday and here is what we did.  Students were given a chance to turn in chapter 11 essay question if they had not yet, and then they finished their chapter 12 vocabulary.  They then read chapter 12 section 1 and completed some questions.

    12.1 questions

    Tuesday 12-4-18 Today the bell ringer was to study chapter 10 and 11 before the test.  Students then took the chapter 10 and 11 test (we allowed them to use thier textbooks on it).  They then finished the chapter 11 essay question.  They then worked on chapter 12 vocaburlay activity.  We will finish vocab tomorrow.

    ch 12 vocab terms

    Monday 12-3-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then gave students a chance to complete their chapter 10 and 11 study guide.  We went over the answers to the chapter 10 and 11 study guide for the test that is Tomorrow.  We then gave students the chapter 11 essay question and allowed them to get started on it.  Homework is to study for the chapter 10 & 11 test that is tomorrow and also finish the chpater 11 essay question.

    ANSWER KEY Study GuideCivics Chapter 10and11

    ch 10 and 11 study guide  

    ch 11 essay question

    Friday 11-30-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish chapter 11 vocabulary and 11.2 questions.  We then checked the 11.2 quiestions as a class (answers were written on the board).  We then read through chapter 11 section 2 & 3.  Students were given 1/2 the anwers to the 11.3 Guided reading.  We then went over 11.3.   Students then started working on the chapte 10 and 11 study guide.  Homework is to finsh the chapter 10 and 11 study guide.  The following answers to the study guide were written on the board to help students get started on the study guide (see below)

    ch 10 and 11 study guide answers given to students to copy off board:

    1. Republican and Democrat  2. Polling place  3. National Committee  4. National nominating convention  5. General  6. Nominate  7. Register  8. C. the candidate will become president only with a majority of electoral college votes 9. Populist  10. A. Voters in a national election 

    30. Senators, representatives  31. The total of the opinions held concerning a particular issue  32. Organizations of people with common interests who try to influence government policies and decisions.  Examples: the American Farm Bureau Federation, retired citizens groups, teacher’s associations.  33. Testify at committee hearings, help write bills, ask members of congress to sponsor bills  34. Tries to influence  people without their knowledge  35. Most people believe that their votes will not make a difference  36. Telephone his or her representative  37. Select a representative sample of the population being surveyed  38. Card stacking  39.Tries to influence people without their knowledge 

    ch 10 and 11 study guide  

    ANSWER KEY to Even Numbered questions from ch 10 and 11 study guide

    11.3 guided reading

    Thursday 11-29-18 Today the bell ringe was to study chapter 10 vocab before the quiz. Students then took the chapter 10 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, they finished thier chapter 11 vocab.  We went over the 10.4 handout.  We watched a video clip on the electoral college and discussed it. We then had students start reading chapter 11 secition 2 and answering some questions.

    11.2 questions

    Wednesday 11-28-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from the American Civil Liberties box on page 264

    13. Why did the Supreme Court create a special rule for untrue statements about public figures?

    14. How does the public-figure protection strike a balance between the interests of the press and the rights of individuals?

    We then gave students a chance to finisih the 10.2 handout and 10.4 handout.  Students then read chapter 11 section 1 and competed the 11.1 guided reading.  Students were also given chapter 11 vocab to start after the guided reading.  Homework is to study for the chapter 10 vocab quiz that is tomorrow.

     11.1 handout

    Tuesday 11-27-18 today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (See calendar tab).  Students were then given a chance to finish 10.2, 10.3, and 10.4 from last week and yesterday.  The 10.3 answers were written on the board for them to check.  We then had students write a Races paragraph, here are the instructions for the paragraph that they turned in today: Label top of paper: How you become a voter in the U.S., Write a Races Paragraph on your own paper to answer the following question in 5-8 sentences: How do you become a voter in the United States?  p. 259-261. 

    Homework is to finish any incomplete work from chapter 10.

    Monday 11-26-18 I had to leave school 2nd period to get my sick daughter, so students worked on the 10.4 handout.

    10.4 handout

    Tuesday 11-20-18 Today students came in and finsihed any previous incomplete work. They then read through chapter 10 section 3, completed some notes and answered some questions.  Hope everyone has a great Thanksving break!!!

    10.3 notes and questions

    Monday 11-19-18 Today the bell ringer was to to copy the weeky agenda. Studnets should finish any incomplete work from last week (ch 10 vocab activity and 10.1 questions).  Students then were given the 10.2 organizer to complete today.

    10.2 organizer

    Friday 11-16-18 Today students will start class by finishing chapter 10 vocab. Students then re-take ch 7 and ch 8 test if they need to.  They then read chapter 10 section 1 and complete the 10.1 questions.  Above I have uploaded what we will do in class on Monday and Tuesday as I know some students may not be therer those days.  Progress Reports go home today, grades are up to date with the exception being the finance project, as it is taking a good bit of time to grade everyone's projects and the chapter 9 test and essay question from Thursday. These will be entered into i-now when they are graded.  If a student did not turn in an assignment, scroll down to find it.

    10.1 questions

    Thursday 11-15-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently study chapter 9 before the test.  Students then took the chapter 9 test.  After the test, students completed the chapter 9 essay question and turned it in if they did not turn it in yesterday.  We then had students start the chapter 10 vocabualry activity.  Some students studied for test re-takes on chapter 7 and 8 that we will allow students to complete in class tomorrow.  We will finish chapter 10 vocab tomorrow.

    Chapter 10 section 1 and 2 vocabulary activity

    Wednesay 11-14-18 Today students were given a chance to finish their chapter 9 review questions before we went over them.  We wrote the answers on the board for them to check their questions with.  Students were then given the chapter 9 essay question to work on.  Homework is to study chapter 9 for Thursday's test.

     ch 9 essay question

    Civics Chapter 9 review questions Student Copy

    ch 9 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Tuesdy 11-13-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda.  Sutdents then finished the 9.4 questions from Friday before we checked them.  We then had them start on the chapter 9 review questions.  Homework is to complete the ch 9 review questions if they did not in classs today.

    Civics Chapter 9 review questions Student Copy

    ch 9 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Monday 11-12-18 Veterans Day- No school

    Friday 11-9-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from page 238

    11. How is the editorial framee- what issue, policy, or event does it address?

    12. Whatis the Author's point of view? How can you tell?

    We then gave students a chance to finish the 9.3 questions before checking those.  We then read through chapter 9 section 4 and students answered some quesitons. I have also attached below the chapter 9 review questions we will pass out and work on Tuesday for our upcoming test on Thursday.

    9.4 questions

    Civics Chapter 9 review questions Student Copy

    Thursday 11-8-18 Today the bell ringer was to study before the chapter 9 vocab and comprehension quiz.  Students then took the quiz.  Students then worked on finishing their questions from 9.1 & 9.2 from yesterday.  They then read chapter 9 section 3 and worked on the 9.3 questions.

     9.3 handout

    Wednesday 11-7-18 Today students were asked to turn in the 9.1 handout questions from yesterday.  We then asked them to turn in the finance project if they did not yesterday.  For our bell ringer, students copied and answered the following question from the page 229 cartoon.

    10. Why do you think the cartoonist chose to depict such an exaggerated method of stopping speeders?

    We then took notes on 9.1 and 9.2 by going over a PowerPoint presentation.  Students were given a handout to fill in the blanks. Students then completed the following questions on their own paper: p. 230 #1b, 2b, 2c, 3b, p. 233 #1b, 2b, 3b.  Homework is to study chapter 9 vocab for the quiz tomorrow.

     9.1 and 9.2 powerpoint notes

    9.1 and 9.2 notes handout STUDENT COPY

    Civics Chapter 9 vocabulary terms and definitions

    Tuesday 11-6-18 Today the bell ringer was to read page 226-227 and then copy and answer the 2 questions from the cartoon on page 227. 

    8. What is the general topic of the cartoon?

    9. What is humorous about the boy's response  to the father?

    We then gave students a chance to finish their finance projects and turn them in.  Students then read chapter 9 section 1 and completed the 9.1 handout questions.  If students did not finish these questions, they are HOMEWORK, due tomorrow at the start of class for a grade, we will check this for accuracy. 

    9.1 handout questions 

    Monday 11-5-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar link).  We then worked on our finance projects, most students finished this today.  If students did not finish finance project, it should be completed for homework.

    Friday 11-2-18 We worked on the Finance project today, we will finish it Monday.

    Thursday 11-1-18 Worked on the Finance project today

    Wednesday 10-31-18 Today students turned in the chapter 8 essay question if they did not yesterday.  They then finished the chaper 9 vocab activity.  They then started their finance project.  We will continue to work on the project tomorrow.

    fall 2018 careers for finance project

    Tuesday 10-30-18 Today students were given a chance to study before the chatper 8 test.  Students then took the chapter 8 test.  After the test, they were given a chance to finish the chapter 8 essay question and turn it in, if they did not finish it, it is homework due at the start of class tomorrow.  They then started working on chapter 9 vocabulary (we will finish this tomorrow).

    Monday 10-29-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar link).  We then gave students a few minutes to finish chapter 8 review questions.  We had students who were absent Thursday and Friday take the vocabulary quiz and turn in ch 8 vocab and 8.4 handout.  We then went over the answers to chapter 8 review questions.  Students then started to work on the chapter 8 test essay question.  Homework is to study for the chapter 8 test that is tomorrow.

    ch 8 essay question

    ch 8 review questions for the test

    ch 8 review questions answer key

    Friday 10-26-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish all work from chapter 8.  We then checked the 8.3 questions (answers were on the board).  Students then finished the 8.4 handout questions and turned it in. Students then stared working on chapter 8 review questions.  Homework is to complete the review questions.

    ch 8 review questions for the test

    ch 8 review questions answer key

    8.3 questions answer key

    Thursday 10-25-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently study chapter 8 vocabulary before the quiz. Students were given 5-10 minutes to study.  Students then took the chapter 8 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students turned in their chapter 8 vocabualry activity.  They then finished the 8.3 questions on the back side of the notes from yesterday and then read chapter 8 section 4 and completed the 8.4 handout.  Homework is to complete all work from chapter 8. 

     8.4 handout

    Wednesday 10-24-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 8.2 outline and questions from yesterday. We then went over the questions.  We took notes on 8.3 and stated working on 8.3 questions (we will finish these tomorrow in class).  We then reviewed chapter 8 vocabulary for the quiz tomorrow. Homework is to study for the quiz.

    8.3 powerpoint presentation

    8.3 notes with blanks

    8.3 questions

    Chapter 8 vocabulary terms and definitions

    Tuesday 10-23-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following question from page 206.  

    7. How is the Hoover Dam an example of the federal government and state governments working together?

    We then completed the 8.1 notes and questions handout from yesterday.  We then read chapter 8 section 2 and started to complete the 8.2 outline and questions.  We will finish this tomorrow.

     8.2 outline and questions

    Monday 10-22-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (we gave students a grade for this today). We then gave then a couple minutes to finish up chapter 8 voocabualry.  We then watched a video clip (link in the 8.1 PowerPoint) and went over some notes from 8.1.  They then started working on the 8.1 questions at the bottom of the notes (we will finish this tomorrow). Homework is to finish chapter 8 vocabulary if it is not yet finished.

    8.1 powerpoint notes

    8.1 notes and questions

    Friday 10-18-18 Today the bell ringer was to read the box on page 203 about students and the lottery and then copy and answer the following questions.

    5. Is it fair that everyone should pay taxes to fund schools? Why or why not?

    6. What is your opinion about using lotteries and slot machines ot pay for education?

    We then went over the questions and talked about them.  We then gave students a chance to turn in chapter 7 essay question if they did not yesterday.  We then gave them a chance to complete chapter 8 vocabualry and if they did not finish it, it sould be finished for homework.  We then started to introduce chapter 8.

    Thursday 10-18-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the test.  Students then took the chapter 7 test.  Studens then were given a chance to finish and turn in their chapter 7 essay question that they were given yesterday (if they did not finish it today, it is homework due first thing tomorroW). Students then started chapter 8 vocabulray after they finshed their essay question.  We will finish chapter 8 vocabulary tomorrow.

    Chapter 8 vocabulary activity

    Wednesday 10-17-18   Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 bell ringer questions from the board from the drawing on page 186-187.

    1. What are the steps that a case may take through the judicial system? The case is heard in a U.S. district court and can then be reviewed by a U.S. court of appeals. The appeals court may send the case back to the district court for a new trial or uphold the decision; it can then be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    2. Why might a court of appeals send a case back to a district court for a new trial? If the court feels a fair trial was not given in the district court.

    Students who did not finish their research and paragraph from yesterday (Tuesday) then turned it in.  Students then worked on their Chapter 4 study guide for the test that is tomorrow. Then we passed out the chapter 7 Test essay question.  They will work on the essay question in class and finish for homework.  Homework is to Study for the chapter 7 Test that is tomorrow (Thurday).  

    Answer Key for Chapter 7 study guide

    ch 7 test study guide

     ch 7 essay question

    Tuesday 10-16-18  Today the bell ringer was to read page 184 and copy and answer the following 2 questions (bell ringer numbers start over this 9 weeks). 

    1. What is the news article about? What facts does the author provide?
    2. On what sources does the author base his or her information? What evidence d you find that the sources are either reliable or unreliable?

    We then passed out make up work to students who were absent yesterday (ch 7 study guide and RACES paragraph on the 4 cases we looked at).  We then gave students a few minutes to work on the chapter 7 study guide (first 10 answers were on the board for them to copy to help them get started).  We then passed out Chrombooks and students researched our Supreme Court Justices.  They wrote facts down and then wrote a paragraph  (using RACES method) on the Justice of their choosing.  Students who finished early worked on their study guide.  Homework is to complete the study guide for the test on Thursday.

    Supreme Court Justice Research 

    Answer Key for Chapter 7 study guide

    Monday 10-15-18 Toay the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (See calendar tab). We then gave students a chance to finish their 7.3 questions from Friday before going over the answers that we wrote on the board.  We then assigned students a RACES paragraph that they were to do today and turn in for a grade.

    Question for Paragraph: From the 4 Supreme Court cases we discussed and completed the 7.3 chart on, which case do you think was most important (explain why)? USE RACES METHOD TO ANSWER.

    RACES Writing Strategy:

    Restate the question  "I think..." or "I believe..."

    Answer the question  "I think..." Because  or "I believe..." Because

    Cite evidence to support answer  " In the reading passage..."  or  "In the story..."

    Expand/Explain  How does it all fit together?

    Sum it up.  Closing statement but you do not restate what you have already said.

    Students then strated to work on chapter 7 study guide for the test on Thursday 10-18-18.  Homework is to start to work on the study guide and bring box tops.

     ch 7 test study guide

    Supreme Court Case RACES paragraph

    Friday 10-12-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 7.2 quesitons and we went over the answers.  We then watched a video clip that discussed the 4 court cases on the landmark supreme court cases chart.  We then discussed the cases and completed a chart on them.  Students then completed the 7.3 questions.

    Thursday 10-11-18  Today the bell ringer was to study chapter 7 vocab before the quiz.  Students then took the chapter 7 vocabulary quiz.  After the quiz, students finished up the questions from yesterday.  They then read chapter 7 section 3 and started working on the 7.3 court case chart and questions (Front and back).  We will finish this tomorrow.

    Landmark Supreme Court Cases- blank chart

    7.3 questions

    Wednesday 10-10-18 Today the bell ringer was to check the answers to the 7.1 questions from yesterday (answers were written on the board). We went over the answers and gave students a few minutes to study before a pop quiz on 7.1.  We then went over quiz grades, this was intended as a reality check for students who played around a little too much yesterday and did not pay attention.  Students graded their own papers and these will not go in the grade book.  We then took notes on chapter 7 section 2.  Homework is to study for the chapter 7 vocabualry quiz that is tomorrow, students may also turn in chapter 7 vocabaulray tomorrow, so it needs to be complete.

    7.2 powerpoint notes

    7.2 notes student copy with blanks

    7.2 questions (back side of notes handout)

    ch 7 vocab terms and definitions

    Tuesday 10-9-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then gave students a chance to complete chapter 7 vocab that was given out last week.  We then watched a video clip on the Judicial Branch.  We read through chapter 7 section 1 and answered some questions.  Students should finish chapter 7 vocab for homework if they did not.

    ch 7 vocab activity

    7.1 questions

    Monday 10-8-19 No school, Columbus Day

    _______________1st 9 weeeks below, 2nd 9 weeks above _________________________

    Friday 10-5-18 Today students were given a chance to study before their re-takes.  We asked them to turn in any make up work they had.  Students worked on re-takes and then worked on chapter 7 vocabaulary. LAST DAY OF 1ST 9 WEEKS!!!!

    Thursday 10-4-18 Today students were given a chance to study before their re-takes.  We asked them to turn in any make up work they had.  Students worked on re-takes and then worked on chapter 7 vocabaulary. Homework is to study for any re-takes or complete any other work to turn in by tomorrow.

    Wednesday 10-3-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the 9 week exam.  Students then took the 9 week exam.  After the exam, we went over the chapter tests students need to take Thursday and Friday.  All students will be given the opportunity to re-take 1 chapter test if they choose.  Homework is to study for re-takes and turn in any make up work.  All previous review materials are still posted. 

    Tuesday 10-2-18 Today the bell ringer was to check the 9 week exam review questions (answers were written on the board).  We went over the answers.  We then went over the 9 week exam review powerpoint.  Homework is to study for the exam that is tomorrow (Wednesday). On Thursday and Friday, students who have failed test will be given a chance to re-take them to earn back some points (Check i-now, to see if you are missing grades or need to re-take tests) as well as make up missed quizzes and other class work.   Please study tonight!!!!

    1st 9 weeks study guide fall 2018

    fall 2018 1st 9 weeks exam STUDY GUIDE ANSWER KEY

    FAll 2018 civics 1st 9 weeks exam review powerpoint

    FAll 2018 1st 9 weeks review Powerpoint ANSWER KEY

    Monday 10-1-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy weekly agenda (See calendar tab) and to also copy and answer the following 2 bell ringer questions from the reading check questions on page 173.

    14. What makes a regulatory commission different from other independent agencies? it has the power to make rules and bring violators to court

    15. What does the bureaucracy use to carry out activities, and what is often the result? rules and regulations; bureaucratic delay

    We then had students take the bell ringer quiz, after the quiz, students worked on their 9 week exam study guide.  We put the answers for questions 1-20 and 50-59 on the board for students to get down.  Homework is to finish the study guide, the answers to the 9 week exam study guide are uploaded below.

    fall 2018 1st 9 weeks exam STUDY GUIDE ANSWER KEY

    FAll 2018 civics 1st 9 weeks exam review powerpoint

    FAll 2018 1st 9 weeks review Powerpoint ANSWER KEY

    Friday 9-28-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 quesitons from the box on page 172 and 173.

    12. What is the cartoonist saying about the governments response to a natural disaster? the government's response can be delayed due to red tape.

    13. When did total government employment first exceed 15 million? 1970

    We then went over the 6.4 questions.  Students then took a pop quiz on chapter 6 that they were able to use their textbook on.  We then gave them the 9 week exam review questions to get started on.  Homework is to make sure they have all 13 bell ringers for the bell ringer quiz on Monday and to work on their 9 week exam review questions to prepare for Wednesday's exam.

    2018 1st 9 weeks bell ringers

    1st 9 weeks study guide fall 2018

    Thursday 9-27-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the 2 questions from page 169 and to then study chapter 6 vocabulry before the quiz. 

    10. Who makes up the president's cabinet? the heads of the executive departments
    11.What are the responsibilities of the Department of State and Department of Defense?

    Students then took the chapter 6 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students were given a chance to read back through chapter 6 section 3 & 4.  We went over the 6.3 answers and students were asked to work on the 6.4 questions.  We will pass out the 9 week exam study guid and start working on that tomorrow.

    6.3 and 6.4 questions

    Wednesday 9-26-18 Today the bell ringer was too copy and answer the 2 questions from the boxes on page 161 and 162.

    8. In today's world what are 3 ways a vice president night assist the president?

    9. Why might Lincoln be considered one of the greatest symbols of American democracy?

    we then completed the 6.2 outline by going over a PowerPoint presentation.  We watched a video clip about the president's cabinet and then stared reading through chpater 6 sections 3 and 4.  We gave out some questions on these sections, and we will work on them tomorrow as we did not quite get to them today. Homework is to study chapter 6 vocabualry tonight, we will not have any comprehension questions tomorrow. Chapter 6 vocabualry activity is posted under Friday 9-21-18.

    6.2 powerpoint

    6.2 outline

    Tuesday 9-25-18 Today the bell ringer was to read page 163 and copy and answer the following 2 questions.

    6. What specific environmental problem did the studentss identify in their community?  Need to encourage recycling of bottles and cans.

    7. How id the students go about convincing the legislature to support their idea?  How did support fromt htt sate executive branch help their cause? They contaced public officials, consulted with the lieutenant governor, found sponsors for their bill, and presented their pills to the legislature.  The lieutenant governor answered questionas and offered advice that helped students write the bill.

    Students then checked thier answers to the 6.1 Guided Reading.  Students were then given an opportunity to look over the chapter 5 test and earn back some points by looking up the answers to the questions they missed.  We then had students start an outline on chapter 6 section 2 that we will complete tomorrow in class. 

     

    Monday 9-24-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar link).  We then asked students to turn in their chapter 5 essay question if they did not on Friday.  They were then asked to complete the chapter 6 vocab activity that they started after the test on Friday.  Students then read chapter 6 section 1 pages 160-162 and answered some questions.  Homework is to finish the chapter 6 vocabulary if it is not complete.

    6.1 Guided Reading 

    Friday 9-21-18 Today students came in and studied before taking their chapter 5 test.  Before the test they turned in some of their work from 5.2, 5.4 and their handwritten answers to the chapter 5 review questions.  Studnets then took the chapter 5 test.  After the test, students started chapter 6 vocabulary.

    ch 6 vocab activity

    Thursday 9-20-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 5 review questions.  We then checked the comic strip activity for a grade.  We then went over the answers to the chapter 5 review questions (posted under yesterday's post). We then gave students their chapter 5 essay question to work on.  They will turn it in tomorrow after the test.  Homework is to study for the test that is tomorrow!!! Resources to study have been uploaded under previous days this week.  We will also be taking up some of the work we have completed this week as well as the handwritten answers students wrote for their chapter 5 review questions so we can give them grades for their classwork this week. 

    ch 5 essay question- how a bill becomes a law

    Wednesday 9-19-18 Today the bell ringer was to update the weekly agenda students copied on Monday as we backed up our chapter 5 test one day to Friday 9-21-18.  We then gave students a chance to finish their comic strip before we checked it.  We then went over the 5.4 guided reading from yesterday and wrote the answers on the board for studnets to check.  We then had students work on the chapter 5 review questions, the first 15 answers were on the board for students to get down.  Homework is to finish the chapter 5 review questions and study for the test on Friday.  I have uploaded the Answer key to the chapter 5 review questions below.

    ch 5 review questions ANSWER KEY

    Tuesday 9-18-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently (we wrote the definitions and terms on the board and went over them before the quiz).  We then had students take the chapter 5 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students checked their answers to the chapter 5 section 3 questions (answers were written on the board).  They then worked on completeing their comic strip activity.  The powers of congress comic strip is homework if it was not finished today in class. Studnets then stared the 5.4 guided reaing and we will finish it tomorrow.  We also gave out the chapter 5 test review questions that we will work on in class tomorrow.  I have decided to move the chapter 5 test back 1 day to take it on Friday 9-21-18 to allow students more time to prepare for it.

    ch 5 review questions

     5.4 guided reading

    Monday 9-17-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda and then to check the 5.2 guided reading.  We then took notes on 5.3 and then students answered some questions and worked on a comic strip activity where they illustrated the powers of Congress.

    5.3 powerpoint notes

    5.3 notes handout

    5.3 questions and comic strip

    ch 5 sec 1 and 2 vocab terms defined

    ch 5 review questions

    Friday 9-14-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 5.1 guided reading.  We then went over it and discussed Congress.  We then watched a video clip about congress and then one about gerrymandering (link below).  We then read through chapter 5 section 2 and answered some questions.

    http://viewpure.com/Mky11UJb9AY?start=0&end=0

    5.2 questions

    Thursday 9-13-18 Today students were given a chance to finish the chapter 3 & 4 essay question before turning it in.  They then finished chapter 5 section 1 & 2 vocabulary.  While they were working on this we went over thier chapter 3 & 4 test scores with them.  Students then worked with partners to read through chapter 5 section 1 and complete the 5.1 guided reading.

    5.1 guided reading

    Wednesday 9-12-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the chapter 5 vocabulary from yesterday.  Students then were given an essay question from chapter 3 & 4 and this will be turned in tomorrow.  We then allowed all students a chance to look back over thier test from yesterday and to finish or change any answers on it today. Several students did not finish it yesterday, and out of fairness to all students, I decided to give them all a chance to look back over it before I grade it. Students then worked on the essay question.  They then worked on chapter 5 vocabulary.  We will go over the chapter 3 & 4 test tomorrow.

    ch 3 & 4 essay question

    ch 5 section 1 & 2 vocab activity

    Tuesday 9-11-18 Today the bell ringer was to study for the chapetr 3 & 4 test.  Students then took the test.  After the test students stared chapter 5 vocab.  Some students did not quite finish their test today, so we will let all students have an opportunity to look back over their chapeter 3 & 4 test tomorrow if they want to finish or change anything.

    Monday 9-10-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then gave students a little time to finishh their study guide and study.  We then went over the study guide and reviewed for tomorrow's test. Homework is to study for the test that is tomorrow, review materials are posted under Friday's post.  I also uploaded a powerpoint review game I used a couple years ago, it may cover a little more than will be on the test, but will be another good resource to use to study. Students will turn in their handwritten answers to the study guide tomorrow before taking the test (they have had plenty of class time to complete this).

    Ch 3 & 4 review Powerpoint from PREVIOUS SEMESTER

    ch 3 & 4 review powerpoint answer key

    Friday 9-7-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish the 4.2 amendment chart and the 4.3 guided reaing and we went over them.  We then gave studnets the chapter 3 & 4 study guide to work on.  We went over the first 10 questions as a class and wrote the answers on the board for students to copy.  The study guide gives students the page numbers where the answers can be found.  We told students they needed to work on thier study guide this weeked to start to prepare for the test on Tuesdy 9-11-18.  Below are some resources students can use to study.  Students also may want to listen to the Audio recordings of the chapters on the textbook website (there is a textook link tab on this website you can use to get to the book website).

    ch 3 & 4 study guide for test

    ANSWER KEY ch 3 & 4 study guide

    Thursday 9-6-18 Today the bell ringer was to finish chapter 4 vocab and check 4.1 questions (answers were on board). We then went over the Bill of Rights.  We then watched a video clip.  We completed the 4.2 amendments chart and stared the 4.3 guided reading.

    4.2 amendment chart with blanks

    4.3 guided reading

    Wednesday 9-5-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following question from the page 101 American Civil Liberties box.

    5. Do you think students are less able to express themselves if they have to wear uniforms? Why?

    Students were then given a chance to finish the 2 post reading questions from 3.3 guided reading from yesterday.  We then had them work on chapter 4 vocab activity.  Students then read chapetr 4 section 1 pages 110-116 and completed the 4.1 questions.

    4.1 Bill of Rights questions

    Tuesday 9-4-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (See calendar tab).  We then gave students a chance to look over their chapter 3 vocab before their quiz today.  Studnets then took the chapter 3 vocab quiz.  After the quiz, students read chapter 3 section 3 and completed a guided reading and we discussed it, we then had them start chapter 4 vocabulray activity.  

     3.3 guided reading

    ch 4 vocab activity

    Monday 9-3-18 Labor Day -NO SCHOOL

    Friday 8-31-18 Today the bell ringer was to read the Econ 101 Box on page 89.  

    4. Benjamin Franklin once said, "Nothing can be certain, except death and taxes." What do you think he meant by this?

    We then read chapter 3 section 3 and completed the 3.2 branches of government chart and questions.  We then went over chapter 3 vocabualry terms and definitions, and this is posted below.  Homework is to study for the Chapter 3 vocabualry quiz and comprehension quiz on chapter 3 section 1 & 2.

    ch 3 vocab terms and definitions

     3.2 branches of govt activity

    Thursday 8-30-18 Today students came in and completed the 3.1 questions.  We then went over their chapter 1 & 2 test and their current class average.  We talked about section 1 and went over the questions.

    3.1 handout

    Wednesday 8-29-18 Today students came in and finished the chapter 3 vocabulary. We then had them read through chapter 3 section 1.  We went over the chapter 2 vocab and comprehension quiz from Thursday.

    Tuesday 8-28-18 Today the bell ringer was to silently study before the test.  Students then took the chapter 1 & 2 test.  After the test, students worked on chaper 3 vocabulary activity.  We will go over the test tomorrow with students.

    ch 3 vocab activity

    Monday 8-27-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda and then to finish the ch 1 & 2 study guide.  We then checked the study guide.  We then went over the review power point.  Resources to use to study are still posted under Friday's post (scroll down on this page to see them).  Homework is to study for the chapter 1 & 2 test that is tomorrow.

    Friday 8-24-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following question from page 45.

    3. Which of the ideas listed here do you consider most important? Why?

    We then gave students a chance to finish 2.3 questions and checked them.  We the gave students a chance to work on the study guide.  Homweork is to work on the study guide and study.  Below are some resources students can use to study for the test on Tuesday.

    ch 1 & 2 study guide

    Answer Key to Ch 1 & 2 Study Guide

    Civics Chapter 1 and 2 test review game POWER POINT

    ch 1 and 2 test review game ANSWER KEY

    Thursday 8-23-18 Today we came in and students studied before their vocabulary and comprehension quiz on chapter 2.  We then took the quiz and voted on student council.  After the quiz, students worked on thier 2.3 questions.

    2.3 questions

    Wednesday 8-22-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer the following question from the box on page 32.

    2. How do television news programs keep people around the country informed about disasters? What are television's limitations? They provide information in a timely manner.  Television can only be effective if people watch it.

    We then gave students a chance to finish 2.2 handout before going over it.  We watched a video clip on the Articles of Confederation. We read chapter 2 section 3. We then reviewed for the ch 2 vocab and coprehension quiz that is on Thursday.

    2.2 handout

    Tuesday 8-21-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy and answer question 31 from the primary source box.

    1. What is the cartoonist trying to say about those who wish to suppress peaceful protest? Those who wish to suppress peaceful protest are undemocratic. 

    We then gave students a chance to finish the 2.1 questions before going over them.  We watched a video clip on the Declaration of Independence.  Student then worked with partners to answer some questions from 2.2. 

    Monday 8-20-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then gave students a chance to finish chapter 2 vocabulary.  We then watched a video clip before reading chapter 2 section 2 and answering 2.1 questions.

    2.1 questions

    Friday 8-17-18 Today students completed the chapter 1 section 3 questionss and we went over them, we watched a video clip on the census.  We then started chaper 2 vocabulary.

    ch 2 vocab activity

    Thursday 8-16-18 Today students were given some time to study before their vocabulary quiz, we then checked their ch 1 vocabulary activity for a grade.  We then had then take the chapter 1 vocab activity.  We then went over the 1.2 questions from yesterday. Student then read chaptger 1 section 3 and answered some questions.  We will finish this tomorrow.

    1.3 questions

    Wednesday 8-15-18 Today the bell ringer was to complete the 1.1 guided reading from yesterday, we then went over it.  We watched a video clip about naturalization from the U.S. immigration website.  We then read through chapter 1 section 2 and answered some questions, we will finish them tomorrow in class, so they are not homework.  The only homework tonight is to study for the chapter 1 vocabulary quiz that is tomorrow.

    https://www.uscis.gov/citizenship/teachers/educational-products/becoming-us-citizen-overview-naturalization-process

    Tuesday 8-14-18 Today the bell ringer was to complete the chapter 1 vocabulary.  We then went over chapter 1 vocabulary, we then read through chapter 1 section 1.  We will finish the 1.1 guided reading tomorrow as we did not finish it today.  Students should finish chaper 1 vocabulary for homework if they did not finish it after working on it 2 days in class. 

    1.1 guided reading

    Monday 8-13-18 Today the bell ringer was to copy the weekly agenda (see calendar tab).  We then had students work on chapter 1 vocabulary.  We then passed out textbooks while students were working on their vocabulary.  If students did not finish their vocabulary today, they will be given a little class time to finish it tomorrow.  Homework is to take the textbook home.

    ch 1 vocab activity

    ch 1 terms and definitions

    Friday 8-10-18 Today studnets worked on the what do you already know about civics questions and we then went over them as a class.  We then introduced our chapter 1 vocabulary activity.  We will finish this in class on Monday as we did not get very far.  We will give out textbooks on Monday. NO HOMEWORK THIS WEEKEND!!!!!

    Thursday 8-9-18 Today we put students in a seating chart.  Students then worked on get to know you activity, and we discussed it as a class.  We then had student start to answer some questions on what they already know about civics.  We will finish this tomorrow in class and it in NOT homework!

    Wednesday 8-8-18 

    Today was the first day of school.  We went over the citizenship syllabus, passed out Publix fundraiser cards, showed students this website, and then went over a get to know Mr. Ray PowerPoint.  We then got to know each other.  Homework is to get the syllabus signed.